I was just wondering if we did build something like the Starshot initiative, how we could slow the spacecraft approaching their interstellar targets – the drag on the solar sail! All the sail has to do is impact enough gas travelling thru interstellar space equivalent to the mass of the spacecraft – because the relative momentum between spacecraft and gas will cancel out.
The question then is simply how much gas a sail of a given area will impact.
The sun is actually travelling thru a slightly less dense region of space right now called the Local Fluff.
But the density is still 0.3 atoms/cm3, or 106 * .3 atoms/m3.
12.04×1023 atoms in 1 mole of hydrogen molecules which is, conveniently, 1 g. ( the mass of our spacecraft.)
Basically, the sail would have to pass thru 12*1023 / 3*105 = 4*1018 meters before it slows the spacecraft to a stop.
That might seem like a monstrously huge number but there are 1016 meters per light year! So about 400 light years of dust impacting a 1 square meter sail to slow it to a stop.
Clearly the sail needs to be 100 square meters to slow down in 4 light years!
The next problem is the mass of solar sail. So far, the solar sails tested in space have been absurdly heavy for this project. A potential new material makes it feasible – graphene films. They calculate a single molecule thick film would weigh only .00074 g/m2. A more robust solution for instellar travel might be 100 layers with a shock-absorbing bond between layers.
Starshot hopes to accelerate a 1g spacecraft to .1c with multiple ground-based lasers focused on it. After the sail is used to accelerate the craft, coasting some distance and then returning the sail tangential to the flight path will eventually slow it down to a hopefully more lengthy encounter with a distant star system.
Yes, even the smallest dust particle encountered will punch a hole thru the nano-film, but 99% of interstellar matter is simply atomic or molecular hydrogen atoms.
The story goes much, much deeper than this –
Paraphernalia Discovered in Bolivian Cave Shows Ancient Ayahuasca Use
The active drug in Ayahuasca is DMT. It is the drug The Evil Ones use to commune with spirits on the astral plane who tell them to screw humanity and destroy the Earth. It’s not a question of how insane that sounds because that’s what the bastards really believe! DMT rituals are now used to bring “initiates” into the Globalist Cult.
The Ultimate Secrets of DMT
It’s been described as “a businessman’s acid trip” because you literally leave this reality and experience “something else” before returning – in less than 20 minutes ( like a “business lunch”)! Of course, people who are not evil psychopaths have a very positive experience with “friendly entities”, and the psychopaths simply use this to reinforce and justify their Evil.
More anti-American judges making up the law. They are trying to claim that the article in the US Constitution about a census being required to establish the number of representatives says only “residents” – so it includes non-citizens and illegal aliens! This of course is the opposite of what the founders intended.
New York Court Rejects Trump Administration Plan To Add Citizenship Question To Census
…the ruling “marks the opening round in a legal battle with potentially profound ramifications for federal policy and for politics at all levels.”
—> interesting to note, was always in US Census thru 1960 until the sixties, when the Demoncrats changed the laws prompting a huge influx of immigrants and illegals.
This has been an issue for a while. See this study showing the large impact it had way back in 2000 –
So guaranteed, CA and NY would have much less impact – both US Rep’s and Electoral College – if non-citizens were excluded. Note the study concludes they can’t do it now just because the census does NOT include the citizenship question!
Ever wondered if the New Horizons probe can find KBO’s out there before Earth-based telescopes?
How much closer to a KBO would NH have to be to get a better view than the best Earth based telescope?
New Horizons had 2 cameras: the LORRI (8.2″) and the Ralph (2.4″):
The largest telescope is the 409″ Gran Telescopio Canarias.
The light gathering power of a telescope/camera is proportional to the area of its aperture. So the Earth telescope has 2500x the power of the larger New Horizons camera. But light decreases as the square of distance – so New Horizon needs to be 1/50th as far from the KBO as Earth. Note, the “squares cancel” and the relative distance is proportional to the lens aperture.
For example, if the hypothetical Planet X is ~50 billion miles from the sun, New Horizons would have to be within 1 billion miles of it.
Disgusted at the smug yet wrong answer on Quora that Killary’s private email server wasn’t illegal, I thought I would “google” it. Page after page of liberal & MSM apologists for her! All critical/conservative pages removed. Google is now completely unreliable for any political searches. Try GoodGopher instead.
But it’s worse than that because the FBI/DOJ/Congress actively covered up her crimes by refusing to do a proper investigation:
- FBI never demanded access to the servers to see if they had been hacked
- CIA/NSA had all the emails + record of hacker’s internet access which FBI refused to look at.
- No attempt to investigate damage caused by leaked classified information.
- No attempt to investigate Killary’s email received by government officials,
- No more mention of tens of thousands of Killary emails on Weiner’s laptop
- No attempt to look at Clinton’s finances or foundations for bribes paid.
Just some thoughts on one of my favorite movies of all time – Bladerunner.
SyFy showed the theatrical release (1982) then Ridley Scott’s “Final Cut” from 2007. I was rather hoping I would notice more differences but no. A couple added short segments and a few slightly longer scenes.
The movie was set in 2019 ( the book was 2021) which seemed infinitely faraway back in 1982! So stark contrast between what could have been and what is.
- Nuclear War with China / planet poisoned / dark overcast and constant rain.
- Colonies on other worlds.
- Flying cars
- Replicants indistinguishable from humans.
SyFy had some show notes during the movie. The theatrical release adds an annoying voice-over by Harrison Ford because the studio editors thought people would be too stupid to get it. It also removed any question that it was nothing more than humans vs robots; the Final Cut adds those scenes back in ( Deckard was a replicant too; many things in the theatrical release are out of place without this subtext). The show notes claimed he was just a human in the book – and that’s definitely not what I remember! The book gave the impression that everyone was a replicant – all humans were off-world or dead from radiation. Between “memory implants” and mind control, most didn’t even realize, nor could they tell, they were themselves replicants. The director of the upcoming sequel recognizes this and says the movie will reflect that.
Replicants are like any other machine: they’re either a benefit or a hazard. If they’re a benefit, it’s not my problem.
No, going into green energy is not a good thing if it is not economical, and it is not. Obama blew $150 billion, stolen from the taxpayers, on these essentially “crony capitalist”, anti-free market projects.
Obama Subsidizes U.S. Solar Energy
Spain’s economy was basically destroyed by the fanatical green energy movement there –
Spain’s Green Disaster a Lesson for America
Really it’s a kind of insanity that government officials think they know better than a free market does, and they repeat the failures of centralized command and control (socialist) systems over and over again. So excluding the bogus “CO2 pollution” argument, why do they want renewable energy? They claim it’s because we will run out of fossil fuels! However, as fossil fuels get used up or more expensive to extract, they will become more scarce and their price will necessarily rise. At some point, between rising prices and improved technology, entrepreneurs will bring economical alternative energy to the market. NO “GOVERNMENT SOLUTION” NECESSARY. Instead government distortions of the market simply result in our industries being less price competitive with foreign companies whose government economic policies are not so fucked up.
And no, it was never about “investment in green technology” – that was just the public excuse. R&D is already a tax write-off for companies. Instead, the money was a pay-off to Obama backers, to protect them from market forces of free enterprise and competition, but the economics of “green energy” are so bad that many of those companies went bankrupt anyway. Since it was not their own hard-earned money (like it would have been an entrepreneur), they could waste it on hookers and blow – and kickbacks to the Democrat Machine.
…These programs might be the greatest—and most expensive—example of crony capitalism in American history. Tens of billions of dollars went to firms controlled or owned by fundraisers, bundlers, and political allies, many of whom—surprise!—are now raising money for Obama again.
Analysis: 80% of DOE green energy loans went to Obama backers
The electricity utilities are happy to sell you a “green energy plan” where you pay more for the same amount of energy, but getting the government to force everyone to do it by Dictate, just means a lowered standard of living for everyone. The facts are most people simply can not afford it:
- 62% of Americans have less than $1000 of savings
- 15% of households have negative wealth
- 100 million Americans are out of work; 50% of working age Americans are not working ; the lowest labor force participation rate in 40 years.
- 50 million Americans would starve without government food payments.
- A record high 15% of Americans live in poverty.
I was wondering about how polls could say 95% of black voters are for Killary, when all the numbers says blacks are much worse off now after 6 years of “Democratic leadership”.
Townhall – Blacks worse off under Obama
Expansion of black misery under Obama
National Review – blacks worse off under Obama
I’m thinking what brainwashed chumps! It’s like a litmus test of whether people are living a fantasy when they still support him.
I have heard that Clinton’s “tough sentencing” law in 1994 doubled black incarceration rates, which is true, but they’ve been climbing since Reagan’s Drug War in the early ’80’s. Total rates were declining a little since 2009, but crime started exploding in 2015 and I have not been able to find more recent stats on the rates…
Breitbart – crime spikes in 2015
Ever get the impression that anthropologists don’t have a clue? Why do they have to revise their theories of human evolution everytime a new fossil hominid is discovered or new technology comes out? I have a wacky theory that all the ancestral hominid bones they’ve found so far are ancestral to our own. Without the DNA to go on, all they can do is comparative anatomy and guess what the intra-species variability is. When they start talking about “interbreeding species” of Denisovan, Neanderthal, and modern humans, that is just BS because a species is defined by its inability to breed with other species. I think you had various migrating vs isolated populations going back 8-10 million years that would independently change (drift or unique selective factors) and later on, migrate and interbreed again, until in the modern human you have this huge variation of genes that represent all the different kinds of hominids we descended from. Like the breeds of dogs, we had widely divergent ancestral types, but we all share the same genes…
Modern Humans one of many co-existing ape species