I was just wondering if we did build something like the Starshot initiative, how we could slow the spacecraft approaching their interstellar targets – the drag on the solar sail! All the sail has to do is impact enough gas travelling thru interstellar space equivalent to the mass of the spacecraft – because the relative momentum between spacecraft and gas will cancel out.
The question then is simply how much gas a sail of a given area will impact.
The sun is actually travelling thru a slightly less dense region of space right now called the Local Fluff.
But the density is still 0.3 atoms/cm3, or 106 * .3 atoms/m3.
12.04×1023 atoms in 1 mole of hydrogen molecules which is, conveniently, 1 g. ( the mass of our spacecraft.)
Basically, the sail would have to pass thru 12*1023 / 3*105 = 4*1018 meters before it slows the spacecraft to a stop.
That might seem like a monstrously huge number but there are 1016 meters per light year! So about 400 light years of dust impacting a 1 square meter sail to slow it to a stop.
Clearly the sail needs to be 100 square meters to slow down in 4 light years!
The next problem is the mass of solar sail. So far, the solar sails tested in space have been absurdly heavy for this project. A potential new material makes it feasible – graphene films. They calculate a single molecule thick film would weigh only .00074 g/m2. A more robust solution for instellar travel might be 100 layers with a shock-absorbing bond between layers.
Starshot hopes to accelerate a 1g spacecraft to .1c with multiple ground-based lasers focused on it. After the sail is used to accelerate the craft, coasting some distance and then returning the sail tangential to the flight path will eventually slow it down to a hopefully more lengthy encounter with a distant star system.
Yes, even the smallest dust particle encountered will punch a hole thru the nano-film, but 99% of interstellar matter is simply atomic or molecular hydrogen atoms.
The story goes much, much deeper than this –
Paraphernalia Discovered in Bolivian Cave Shows Ancient Ayahuasca Use
The active drug in Ayahuasca is DMT. It is the drug The Evil Ones use to commune with spirits on the astral plane who tell them to screw humanity and destroy the Earth. It’s not a question of how insane that sounds because that’s what the bastards really believe! DMT rituals are now used to bring “initiates” into the Globalist Cult.
The Ultimate Secrets of DMT
It’s been described as “a businessman’s acid trip” because you literally leave this reality and experience “something else” before returning – in less than 20 minutes ( like a “business lunch”)! Of course, people who are not evil psychopaths have a very positive experience with “friendly entities”, and the psychopaths simply use this to reinforce and justify their Evil.
More anti-American judges making up the law. They are trying to claim that the article in the US Constitution about a census being required to establish the number of representatives says only “residents” – so it includes non-citizens and illegal aliens! This of course is the opposite of what the founders intended.
New York Court Rejects Trump Administration Plan To Add Citizenship Question To Census
…the ruling “marks the opening round in a legal battle with potentially profound ramifications for federal policy and for politics at all levels.”
—> interesting to note, was always in US Census thru 1960 until the sixties, when the Demoncrats changed the laws prompting a huge influx of immigrants and illegals.
This has been an issue for a while. See this study showing the large impact it had way back in 2000 –
So guaranteed, CA and NY would have much less impact – both US Rep’s and Electoral College – if non-citizens were excluded. Note the study concludes they can’t do it now just because the census does NOT include the citizenship question!
Ever wondered if the New Horizons probe can find KBO’s out there before Earth-based telescopes?
How much closer to a KBO would NH have to be to get a better view than the best Earth based telescope?
New Horizons had 2 cameras: the LORRI (8.2″) and the Ralph (2.4″):
The largest telescope is the 409″ Gran Telescopio Canarias.
The light gathering power of a telescope/camera is proportional to the area of its aperture. So the Earth telescope has 2500x the power of the larger New Horizons camera. But light decreases as the square of distance – so New Horizon needs to be 1/50th as far from the KBO as Earth. Note, the “squares cancel” and the relative distance is proportional to the lens aperture.
For example, if the hypothetical Planet X is ~50 billion miles from the sun, New Horizons would have to be within 1 billion miles of it.
Disgusted at the smug yet wrong answer on Quora that Killary’s private email server wasn’t illegal, I thought I would “google” it. Page after page of liberal & MSM apologists for her! All critical/conservative pages removed. Google is now completely unreliable for any political searches. Try GoodGopher instead.
But it’s worse than that because the FBI/DOJ/Congress actively covered up her crimes by refusing to do a proper investigation:
- FBI never demanded access to the servers to see if they had been hacked
- CIA/NSA had all the emails + record of hacker’s internet access which FBI refused to look at.
- No attempt to investigate damage caused by leaked classified information.
- No attempt to investigate Killary’s email received by government officials,
- No more mention of tens of thousands of Killary emails on Weiner’s laptop
- No attempt to look at Clinton’s finances or foundations for bribes paid.
First post. I’m going to cover dailiy news or activities I think are important or interesting. Today , I’m monitoring my new solar oven while it cooks a pot of beans. It’s 71 F today but the oven reads about 180 F and I can smell the beans are cooking.